Koeppel, J. & Z. Hagen, 2005, Changes of marine landscapes: environmental and socio-economic aspects of offshore wind farms, in: ECLAS (D. Oguz), ‘Landscape change’, Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture Ankara University, Ankara
- Author : Koeppel, J. & Z. Hagen
- Year : 2005
- Published in Book : Landscape change
- Pages : 222-229
- Abstract in English : This abstract seeks to broaden the discussion about landscape changes to a new objective – the marine landscape. In recent years, many countries have started to develop the considerable potential of wind power at sea, in order to increase the use of renewable energies. In view of the fact that future wind farms will consist of more than a hundred turbines with overall heights of some 150 metres, many aspects need to be considered to determine appropriate locations. Typical constraints can result from competing uses, such as navigation and aviation, cables and pipelines, military use, commercial fishing and aggregate extraction, and beyond doubt – environmental and conservation interests. In particular, shallow waters near the coast are often designated as protected areas, due to their importance for sea birds and marine mammals. Conflicts can also arise from visual impacts on the coastal landscape which might affect local communities and tourism. To avoid adverse effects of human activities on coastal landscapes and marine nature, environmental and recreational issues need to be carefully reflected in the planning and decision-making processes.
- Comments/Notes : KEYWORDS: marine landscape; offshore wind farms; environmental impacts; economic importance; effects on tourism. / Eclas 2005