Stiles, R., 2000, Landscape architecture (education): challenges and strategies at the start of the 21st century – between balkanisation and globalisation?, in: ECLAS (Aničić, B.), ‘Landscape of the future: the future of landscape architecture education’, Department of Landscape Architecture, Zagreb
- Author : Stiles, R.
- Year : 2000
- Published in Book : Landscape of the future: the future of landscape architecture education
- Pages : 169-177
- Abstract in English : We live in a rapidly changing world characterised more than ever by uncertainty about future
developments. In this context it is essential that the relatively young discipline of landscape architecture
reflects upon the directions of its future development in terms of the wider historical and geographic
This paper will consider the scale of social change and the historical relationships between landscape
architecture and its social context. It will then go on to consider what lessons landscape architecture
education can draw from this analysis for planning its future development.
Landscape is not just a product of mankind, it is a very tangible outcome of social change and
development. Major developments in landscape architecture can also be interpreted as reflections of
significant social upheavals as well as being manifestations of wider cultural, political and artistic
trends. The development and spread of the landscape garden in England can be linked to the
improvements of country estates by landowners carried out in the course of what is know as the
agricultural revolution. The modern European city is, in turn, a product of the industrial revolution. Out
of this as a direct reaction to the serious social and environmental problems it generated grew, more or
less directly, a whole new category of landscape, urban parks and open spaces. Landscape architecture
as we know it is a product of the industrial city far more than of the country estate, and landscape
architecture education and the modern landscape profession was established only after most of the
modern cities had taken shape.
Current changes in society are every bit as revolutionary as the previous ones and are certain to bring
with them new changes in the way landscapes are created and used. The latest acronym: ICE – Internet
Changes Everything is already having a profound effect on our lives. Publications with titles such as ‘The
Death of Distance’ suggest that fundamental changes in the significance of the cities created by the
industrial revolution are likely. The rural landscape too is changing with developments in crop
production and the liberalisation of world trade.
Developments such as deregulation and globalisation have impacts for landscape architecture and
landscape architecture education. These will include the need to develop our international perspectives
within and beyond Europe; to welcome the discovery of the significance of landscape by other disciplines
and to concentrate of the development of more consistent and rigorous theoretical and methodological
approaches using new technologies within which creativity and innovation can flourish and contribute to
the shaping of new European landscapes.