Yazgan, M.E., A. Akay & P. Köylü, 2000, The evulation of anatolian turkish gardens from 13th centure to 21st centura, in: ECLAS (Aničić, B.), ‘Landscape of the future: the future of landscape architecture education’, Department of Landscape Architecture, Zagreb
- Author : Yazgan, M.E., A. Akay & P. Köylü
- Year : 2000
- Published in Book : Landscape of the future: the future of landscape architecture education
- Pages : 209-213
- Abstract in English : Nature has been changing by the needs and preferences of human beings. This had been resulted in the
formation of culture which renews itself from time to time. Gardens have been the best examples that
reflect the changes during each era.
Either big or small, extrovert or introvert, private or public, gardens could be regarded as open air
museums reflecting the lifestyles, culture and economy of societies throughout centuries. Climatic and
geographical conditions, as well as social factors have affected the formation of gardens. The
variations in life styles, culture and economy during the changing time have resulted in the uniqueness
of each garden in each era. As in other arts, civilizations affect the art of gardening of each other. The
influences of civilizations on each other have been the result of wars in Ancient Egyptian, Assyrian,
Persian, Greek, and Roman times. However, travellers, governors and merchants were the leading
people who played important roles in the influence of culture among different societies.
The junction between the Turks and nature was changed as a purpose for gardening after the Turks
had begun to live in settled places, instead of in nomadic tents. Hence, the houses became unified with
gardens. Although the gardens that are existing in the present time reflect the changes within the
garden, none of them keeps its originality.
The influences of the oriental and western cultures, and the social, economical and cultural variations
within the Turkish society have affected the design of Turkish gardens from period to period. These
Anatolian Seljuks Era
Ottoman Empire Era
Early Ottomans Era
The Conquest of Istanbul
The Tulip Era
The Subsidence of the Ottoman Empire
The variations in the gardens that reflect the Ottoman Turkish character began with the design of the
gardens with Renaissance and Baroque styled elements in the 18th century. The gardens are not
designed for functional purposes, rather for aesthetic purposes in this century. By the end of the 19th
century and the beginning of the 20th century, naturalistic preferences could have been observed.
The beginning of the modern landscape architecture was the time when it was abandoned to design
monumental gardens reflecting the richness and the power of their owners. Functionality became the
striking aspect of garden designs.
In this paper, the evolvement of the cognition of gardens in Turks, the characteristics of the historical
periods, and the new trends in gardening will be analyzed.