was first introduced in the United States where the definition of brownfield
category has been used since 1980. At the beginning it described the derelict
industrial areas with environmental pollution. As the desindustrial processes
was getting extended in other countries
as well, the terminology gained further meanings.
2002 the CLARINET (Contaminated Land Rehabilitation Network) was founded by
European Union. They are using the following definition: "Brownfield sites
are sites that have been affected by the former uses of the site and
surrounding land, are derelict or underused, may have real or perceived
contamination problems, are mainly in developed urban areas and require
intervention to bring them back to beneficial use." (Ferber and Grimski
Nowadays in Hungary it is defined
with similar attributes, but there are furthermore problems: Firstly the
ownership is uncleared and separated.
Secondly the legal system is unregulated. Additionally the brownfields
of the capital is occupying valuable areas and blocking urban structure
linkages (between the centre and the outside districts). 13% of Budapest's
total area (circa 68 km2) belong to the brownfield zone (Beluszky,
Gyori 2007, 71-74).
We have to deal with this complex problem because of the huge areas!
We are talking about
polluted areas because of the industrial work. The environmental pollution is
located in general on these areas (mostly the soil pollution), but usually we
do not know how much is it. The factory halls, depots, service areas and the
others collectively are huge biological inactive surfaces. Their green
surface-rate is minimal, the surface temperature is extremely high and the water
can not wasting. These factors are intensifying the fenomenom of the urban heat
The liability of
environmental regeneration is expensive and takes a long time, therefore it
disadvances the renewal projects. Furthermore problems are the uncleared and
separated ownership and the unregulated legal system. All of them discourage
the investors, therefore they choose the greenfield investment preferably, that is not good to strengthen
the urban green network.
Another crucial problem is the decreasing
economical value of these areas. Not only causing a visual conflict, the lack
of public safety in the raunchy areas, contribute to the low economical value of the surrounding
properties. In many cases particularly valuable parts of the city are left abandoned
or deserted as the old industrial, military or transport settlements built
originally in the suburban areas have become surrounded by the developing urban
region. The mosaic functionality generates further difficulties. It is a common
phenomenon that some facilities or industries have less commerce or traffic by
these days and parts of their property is left unused. A property on the other
hand located inside of the industrial zone is hardly marketable in the real
The brownfield zone is mainly in the transition zone of Budapest
(Budapest Fováros Településszerkezeti Terve 2005, 22.). The large enclosure
brownfields are cutting off important urban structure linkages between the
centre and the outside districts. Usually they have not got public road, so
these are blocks in the urban transport, public open space and green
We can conclude, opening and renewing
the brownfields is a current and complicated problem, also a social,
ecological, economical and urban development question.
Eventhough a brownfield rehabilitation project
is not a common green-oriented investment it is still important from the
landscape architecture's point of view. Such rehabilitation involves the
built-up areas and the open spaces as well not only the architectural
construction. Anyway it is favouring as urban-ecologically also it has positive
influence to the urban green network. These areas are important green surface
development potential because of large expansion and good status in the city.
The rehabilitations create the linkages between the green elements and the
radial- ringled green system can be made. The unnecessary railway stations and
rails could improve the linear linkages and the through ventilation of the
city, in place the industrial and military zones could be small and large
public parks, institution parks and conditionally green surface.
Budapest is the largest
city of Hungary. It has a great history which has always affected the
city-structure.The city has been growing from the
beginning till nowadays. It has approximately 1.8 million inhabitants on 525
square kilometres. Today almost 60% of the industry is concentrated around the
city (Magyarország számokban 2009). In the past this city was the centre of
several industries as well, like building industry and mechanical engineering.
Around the city quarries, brickyards, gas factory, dockyards, machine works,
screw factories has been laid out. These factories needed transport supply,
which was provided by railway tracks and water transport. Till today most of these factories were
ceased and relayed by mainly logistic centres. Hereby a great size of area has
become free and as it was mentioned before, because of the growth of the city,
most of these free spaces now located in the inner city. In recent times in
Budapest several brownfields became in a very good position in the
city-structure, so they got high potential values. By taking advantage of these
opportunities some brownfields were transformed into shopping malls, logistic
centres, office buildings, cultural centres with proper size open-spaces. A
very good example of these is the Millenáris. This park became an important
open-space in the city structure. It has a great history because of the factory
what was laid there, and it has a great economical value. We investigate the
park in three aspects in details. These are the ecological values, the effect
of the brownfields and the economical values.
Millenáris / History
The iron foundry was
founded in 1844 by Ábrahám Ganz iron manufacturer, machine and technical
engineer. It became a famous international company known as Ganz & Co.
Electrical Factory. Among the talented inventors working for Ganz& Co.
András Mechwart, Miksa Dér and Kálmán Kandó are worth mentioning. The factory
was specialized in mechanical products for instance: transformer, electronic
meter and engine. After the II. World War the building was destroyed partly.
Although in 1948 it was rebuilt, the production was still decreasing, and soon
the crisis started. Since the urban area was
appreciated and the citizens were against the high pollution, the factory moved
to the countryside and soon the brownfield rehabilitation project started.
Millenáris / Introduction
Millenáris is located on the Buda
side, in District II., which is part of the Downtown. The park has very good
linkages. It is close to one of the biggest traffic hub of Buda, called Moszkva
square, where subway, several buses and trams can be taken as well. From this
square by bus or by walk visitors can reach one of the main sights of Budapest,
the Castle Hill. Adjacent to the park two joint shopping malls can be found,
called Mammut I. and Mammut II. These were built in 1998 and 2001, and they serve
the district's inhabitants needs by several shops, restaurants, cinema, market
Millenáris is perfectly fit to the
city's green system. Now the system looks like, that is mosaic patterned, the
elements are not well connected, so there are a lot of gaps between them. But basically
the layout of the city's green system is radial and concentric. On the border
of the city we can find a ring of green areas. These areas mostly touristic
forest areas, shelter-belts and agricultural areas, which are connected to the
agglomeration area. Another
ring can be found in the Downtown, around the city centre. This was the city's border
in the past. In this inner ring we can find the biggest parks and green areas
of the city, like the City Park, People's Groove, Kopaszi-peninsula, Bikás Park,
Sas-hill, Vérmezo, Városmajor and Margaret-island. Millenáris is a new element
of this green system that fits in this inner circle of green spaces. The park
became an important linkage between the existing green spaces, and it increases
further the amount of biologically active surfaces of the district and the city. The rehabilitation of the Ganz industrial area is a notable urban
development project. Millenaris was a state investment, and it is self-supported
by the incomes derived from the rents and from the programs. In the buildings
there are a gallery, a salon, a teatrum,
huge exhibition rooms which offer different programs all year.
/ Open Space Developments
the local governments (where appropriate the state), the private sector has
also important role in open space developments. The role of the private
investors has been growing significantly of late decades because of the rapid
development of economy and the spread of profit-oriented lifestyle. Therefore
the open space developments, which were exclusively initiated by the city's
government, level at public areas. These open spaces - created in the
settlements - can be rated in different categories based on the self-dependent and mutual
initiations of these organizations.
first category includes the developments which were initiated by the local
government (where appropriate the state) and created from public fund. There
are two different groups in this category regarding the complexity of urban
Simplex group consists such open
space developments, which were exclusively initiated by a local government.
Complex group includes investments,
wherein the open space and property (mostly buildings in this case)
developments appeared collectively to enhance each other.
Millenáris in Budapest is a perfect
example of a complex urban development. The area is a huge plot, which consists
of several smaller plots and public roads. The green areas which are connecting
directly to the buildings are public areas, but they are being maintained by
the renters of these building(s). Therefore the whole area can be used as a
huge park, which is framed by giant hall-buildings. Large quantum of polluted soil
had to be replaced, that's why the under-garage was constructed below the water
surface. The water surface was determined about 110 % of green surface by the
District's Regulation Plan, therefore the vast pool in the middle of the park
was created. Huge number of the old buildings and edifices are conserved and
totally renewed. These are for rent, so there are a lot of programs in the park
all year. The area is about 33000 m2, a playground, an open stage
and huge leisure grassy areas are also placed on this park.
Millenáris is an important sample-area
to examine the effect on the property values. Before the renewing process the
environment was badly polluted by noise and powder, but today this part of the
city has a green space with good feasibility and high recreational rate. The
effect of this change can be demonstrated in the real estate values nearby. The
environment of the park is being improved continuously, which process can be
observed in the property and public space developments (e.g. streets and
squares) next to this green area. The Löv?ház
to the park is good example to demonstrate this process. The construction works
of the street has been finished in 27. August 2010., so today the residents
have a pleasant pedestrian street, too.
second category includes those investments which were initiated exclusively by
a private investor, in the hope of returning the investment's price. These
developments could be rated - like the categories aforementioned - in two
first, Simplex group contains the
developments which were exclusively initiated by a private investor to create
new open space(s). These areas are just semi-public spaces, because they can be
resorted for a predetermined fee. The private playing-fields and their
strangulated environment could be rated here. These areas have significant
urban ecological (depended on their green coverage) and high recreational
(depending on their functionality) effects.
Complex group includes the
developments, wherein the building-investments (residential or office) have the
same role beside the open space developments. The open spaces created in this
way can be public, semi-public or private areas.
third category contains the area/city developments which were created by the
cooperation between the investors and local governments and based on the common
compromise of them. These developments - like the two categories aforementioned
- could be rated in two groups.
Simplex group includes the
investments in which there are/were only open space developments, but they
are/were attained through the common agreement between these two organizations.
Such cases typically occur when the leaders of the settlement allow the
investor to accomplish his plans if he improves the areas (in most cases public
spaces, streets, squares, parks) on specified level which are allotted by the
local government before.
Complex group includes those
developments, in which the open space and building developments are/were
present equally. The open space developments could be public space (streets,
squares, parks), semi-public space, or private space improvements. In the first
case the benefits of the created public space influences not only the city (as
a complex, living system), but the residents which are vitalizing this system
as well. A semi-public area may has the same ecological effect too, but its
functionality (because it can be used by a determined community) substantially
below than the public one.
In Hungary no analyzing research, nor
evaluation relating to the value-influencing effects of open spaces have been
made so far, the lack of which, in the case of such a big city as Budapest, had
unequivocally determined the development of certain urban areas. Certain areas
of the capital emerged in this way which are poorly provided with green areas.
For this the open spaces having more part in the Sustainable City Development
Processes because of the expansion of the city and also of the growing of the
residents' number. The research method to demonstrate this hasn't been emerged
An Evaluation and Proposer System,
which can handle the interests of designers, governments, investors and the
residents simultaneously and through the analysis on them it can propose
regulations and optimal recommendations in reference to the developments could
be a good solution to this problem.
By using this proposal system, the process of urban development could
serve the interests of the community (residents and professional constitutions)
as well as serve the principles of sustainable development and contribute to
the creation of more pleasant settlements.
The Proposal System connected to
property and open space developments consists of the following three sections:
Local Government Module : Optimal offers
can be drawn by this model in reference to the data regarding the level to
which the built-up area is to be regulated as well as to the limitations,
interdictions and liabilities of that area.
Developer/Investor Module: Optimal offers are drawn by this model in
reference to the built-up data of the developable area, to the referenced
type of the created green space and to the location and exposure of the
new properties (flats, offices).
Public Space Developmental Contribution Module: After the calculation (built on the percent rate
of allowances) the system classifies the environmental development
regarding the given area (allotted by the local government to be improved)
into a category, along with the type and the rate of the reconstruction.
The research of this park verifies
that brownfield areas are extremely important part of the cities. A good
renewal of these areas can stop the harmful environment effects. They provide
the linkages between other open spaces in such big cities like Budapest, and
can valorize the environment, therefore can enhance the property values nearby.
To integrate the issues of these researches into urban development practice
could be conducive to abating negative processes deriving from city
developments and to realize the goals of sustainable development -- thus
creating more pleasant and more environmentally-friendly cities.
F?város Településszerkezeti Terve (2005): The transitional zone is the
heterogeneous zone which is around the historic urban district. There are mixed
functioned areas, primarily industrial, storage, transport and public utilities areas.", 22.
CLARINET, Ferber and Grimski (2002), 9.
Doménech (2006), Barcelona: A Quarter of a Century of Town Planning, Aula
számokban 2009, editor: Eszter Német, (Budapest, Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, 2010)
Pál Beluszky, Róbert Gy?ri: A
budapesti barnaövezet határai. Press in: Gy. Barta (director): A budapesti
barnaövezet megújulási esélyei (Budapest, MTA Társadalomkutató Központ, 2004), 71-74.